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Hepatitis and systemic infections diagnostic

WZW, i.e. viral hepatitis, colloquially called "jaundice", is an infectious disease, caused by hepatotropal viruses (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV, HGV, TTV). The name for this group of viruses arises from the fact that their primal target in the organism are liver cells, called hepatocytes. As a result of the infection, liver functions get disordered, because of virus reproduction and immunology response  which destroys hepatocytes infected  by the virus. Across all types of WZW, pathogenic symptoms are similar, regardless of the specific virus which causes them. Frequent symptoms include: jaundice (as a symptom) and accompanying urine darkening, influenza symptoms (increased body temperature, muscle and joint pains), lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, general organism weakening. In majority of cases (80%-90%), viral hepatitis  develops either with only with few symptoms noticeable or with non-specific course. In case of WZW caused by HBV and HCV viruses, long-term infection may lead to cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma. In our offer, you may find the following diagnostic tests for viral hepatitis:

 

Singular tests:

 

303 Virus HBV (WZW type B) – quality, Real-Time PCR

 

The test consists  of detecting the presence of genetic material of hepatitis virus (DNA) type B (WZW type B, HBV - Hepatitis B Virus). This virus is one of the main etiology factors for acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma. The course of the infection may be asymptomatic, with few symptoms or with full symptoms and jaundice. In case of newborns and small children, the infection mostly progresses asymptomatically. The period of disease symptoms usually lasts from a few to several weeks and sometimes characterizes with strong joint pains, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, aches in the right part of the stomach, more seldom with fever, rash, diarrhea or vomiting. Virus infection may start because of skin damage  caused by infected tools (tattoos, cosmetic care, haircutting, stomatology actions), transfusion of blood or its products, sexual contacts with virus carriers and also through infection of a fetus or a newborn child by a mother who is a carrier. The most dangerous for health is a chronic hepatitis (CH) type B. This disease may not give any clinical symptoms. The infection is very often detected only by chance during routine blood testing.  Before conducting fully specific disease diagnostics, it is recommended to do tests based on the analysis of serology markers (HBs, HBe, HBc or HBx) as well as detecting the presence of genetic material of a virus, i.e. HBV-DNA, in blood.

 

Test material:            serum

Transfer method:      2-8°C

Testing method:        Real-Time PCR

Delivery date:            up to 10 working days

 

What is HBV?

 Hepatitis virus type B (HBV) belongs to the family of hepatotropal viruses. Genetic material of HBV is linear DNA. This virus is one of the main etiology factors for acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma. It is estimated that  ca. 300-400 million people are infected with HBV around the world. . The period of infection’s incubation varies from 28 to 160 days, most often it is between 60 and 100 days. The course of the infection may be asymptomatic, only with few symptoms or with full symptoms and jaundice. In case of newborns and small children the infection mostly progresses asymptomatically. The period of disease symptoms usually lasts from a few to several weeks and sometimes characterizes with strong joint pains, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, aches in the right part of the stomach, more seldom with fever, rash, diarrhea or vomiting.

Virus infection may start through direct contact with infected blood,  or skin damage caused by infected tools (tattoos, cosmetic care, haircutting, stomatology actions), transfusion of blood or its products, sexual contacts with virus carriers and also through infection of a fetus or a newborn child by a mother who is a carrier. Over 60% of all the infections start in medical clinics. The reasons for virus transmission include non-sterilized equipment or other hygiene failures of the personnel, connected, e.g., with hand washing or glove change.

If after 6 months of getting infected the virus is not destroyed by the immunology system, then the infection enters its chronic stage (CH B), which is most dangerous for the organism and normally progresses asymptomatically. The disease may not show any clinical symptoms. The infection is very often only detected by chance during routine blood testing. Clinical conduct of a chronic viral hepatitis type B depends on the number of viruses in the organism and the immunology strength of a given patient. The biggest risk of a chronic form relates to infected newborns and small children under 1 year of age (70%-90%), in case of the adults this risk is at 5%-10%. In case of people suffering from CH B there is a significantly greater risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma.

 

Diagnostics of HBV infections

HBV diagnostics, based on the Real Time PCR method, is the only direct method for detecting this virus. Unlike  the case of immunology methods,  this genetic test is characterized  by higher sensitivity and is more specific and facilitates detection of the virus as early as 21 days  from the moment of getting infected. The Real Time PCR method is also the only method that can be applied during treatment of WZW type B.

 

304 Virus HBV (WZW type B) – quality + quantity, Real-Time PCR

 

This test is a modification of test no. 303 and it consists  of detecting the presence and marking the number of DNA copies of a virus HBV. The test  recognizes the number of HBV virus copies in blood  and indicates the viremia status. The Real Time PCR method is the only method used for monitoring the treatment progress of WZW type B. According to recommendations of the Polish Group of HBV Experts, the first HBV DNA marking should be done after 12 weeks of treatment, and the next every 24 weeks.

 

Test material:            serum

Transfer method:      2-8°C

Testing method:        Real-Time PCR

Delivery date:            up to 10 working days

 

306 Virus HCV (WZW type C) – quality, Real-Time PCR

 

The test consists  of detecting the presence of genetic material of hepatitis virus (RNA) type C (WZW type C, HCV - Hepatitis C Virus). It is estimated that ca. 200 million people worldwide are infected, from which ca. 700 thousand in Poland. About 60%-90% of infections in Poland are of hospital or ambulatory origin. It is currently believed that HCV virus is responsible for ca. 90% of non-transfusion related cases of hepatitis. Infection with HCV virus may develop as a result of direct contact with infected blood of a carrier (food transfusion, surgeries, repeatable usage of injection needles, e.g. in case of drug-addicts, stomatology or endoscopy operations). Chronic form of hepatitis C, after approximately 15-20 years may lead to cirrhosis, and then to hepatic carcinoma (ca. 1%-5 % of all the chronically infected patients).

 

Test material:            serum

Transfer method:      2-8°C

Testing method:        Real-Time PCR

Delivery date:            up to 10 working days

 

What is HCV?

Hepatitis virus type C (HCV) belongs to the family of hepatotropal viruses. Genetic material of HCV creates a one-string linear RNA. It is estimated that ca. 200 million people worldwide are infected, from which ca. 700 thousand in Poland .  About 60%-90% of infections in Poland are of hospital or ambulatory origin. It is currently believed that HCV virus is responsible for ca. 90% of non-transfusion related cases of hepatitis. The course of infection is normally asymptomatic or very rarely accompanied by non-specific symptoms, such as lack of appetite, weakening, nausea, muscle or joint pains or loss of body weight.

Infection with HCV virus may develop as a result of direct or indirect contact with infected blood of a carrier (food transfusion, surgeries, repeatable usage of injection needles, stomatology or endoscopy operations, application of rings to the body or tattooing).

Clinical forms of infection with HCV:

  • acute viral hepatitis type C;
  • chronichepatitis;
  • cirrhosis;
  • cellularhepatic carcinoma.

It is estimated that in case of ca. 80% infected people, the disease becomes chronic. Chronic form of hepatitis C may lead after 15-20 years to cirrhosis, and later (after ca. 20-30 years) to hepatic carcinoma (ca. 1%-5% of all those with the chronic form of the disease).

 

Diagnostics of HCV infections

Diagnostics of HCV, based on the Real Time PCR method, is the only direct method for detecting this virus. Unlike  the case of immunology methods, this genetic test is characterized by higher sensitivity and is more specific and  detects the active infection. The Real Time PCR method is also the only method that can be applied during treatment of WZW type C.

 

307 Virus HCV (WZW type C) – quality + quantity, Real-Time PCR

 

This test is a modification of test no. 306 and it consists  of detecting the presence and marking the number of RNA copies of a virus HCV. The test  recognizes the number of HCV virus copies in blood and indicates the viremia status. The Real Time PCR method is the only method used for monitoring the treatment progress of WZW type C. According to recommendations of the Polish Association of Epidemiologists and Infectious Disease Doctors, treatment is considered effective if after 24 weeks of therapy termination the presence of HCV-RNA is not detected in the blood serum.

 

Test material:            serum

Transfer method:      2-8°C

Testing method:        Real-Time PCR

Delivery date:            up to 10 working days

 

Test panel:

 

705 Virus HBV + virus HCV – quality, Real-Time PCR

 

The test covers a panel of genetic tests, which consist  of detecting the presence of genetic material of HBV and HCV viruses. These viruses are one of the most dangerous hepatotropal viruses, as they are one of the main etiology factors of acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma. The test detects the presence of HBV and/ or HCV virus in the tested material.

 

Test material:            serum

Transfer method:      2-8°C

Testing method:        Real-Time PCR

Delivery date:            up to 10 working days

 

DIAGNOSTICS OF SYSTEMIC INFECTIONS

Classical diagnostics of microbiology infections are based on the systems of micro-organism cultivation on patient blood or body fluids. Such methods do, however, possess a number of drawbacks, which limit the possibilities of their effective utilization in everyday medical practice. The basic drawbacks of such methods include, among others, a long time needed to obtain results, low sensitivity and specific nature making it difficult to cultivate, like in particular after antibiotic treatment is started with patients and in cases, where the infection is caused by microorganism. Modern molecular diagnostics offer new solutions to support doctors in the process of taking fast and accurate therapeutic decisions. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an extremely successful diagnostic method with a very broad application spectrum in laboratory diagnostics, especially when quick results are needed and there is a high profile of the test, or when the diagnosed microorganisms are difficult to cultivate.

332 CMV (cytomegaloviral disease) – quality Real-Time PCR

The test is aimed at detecting DNA of CMV virus (Human Cytomegalovirus). CMV is a virus from the group of human herpes-viruses. For most healthy humans, infections with CMV are not harmful and do not manifest themselves with acute symptoms or any long-term health consequences. Occasionally, there may be infection symptoms in form of mononucleosis, long-lasting fever, or a benign hepatitis. Infection with CMV may, however, be very dangerous for certain high risk groups, including fetal infections in pregnancy or infections of people with immunodeficiency symptoms, such as organ recipients or people infected with HIV virus. Cytomegaloviral disease is the main causative agent of congenital infections and also the most frequent infectious cause of mental disorders and deafness. It may also be responsible for child motor development deceleration. Unidentified virus infection caused by birth contact may continue asymptomatically around the ear system, which may even lead to deafness. Early detection of CMV infection is connected to the introduction of proper prophylaxis among people from risk groups, in particular pregnant women and children exposed  to the virus due birth contacts. In particular, the virus deployment may take place without any visible signs or symptoms. The diagnostic test gives the opportunity for very sensitive, fast and focused detection of CMV infections.

 

Test material: serum, plasma

Transfer method: temp.2-8°C Testing method: Real-Time PCR

Delivery date: up to 10 working days

 

Extended description:

What is CMV?

Cytomegaloviral diseasevirus (cytomegalovirus; CMV; HCMV) belongs to the same herpes-viruses family as HSV herpes simplex virus, chicken pox virus or herpes zoster. All those viruses have the ability to stay in the latent state in the organism for a very long time. Besides, they have the ability to transform from the latent state into an active reproduction state, as a result of inductive factors, i.e. factors reducing organism immunity and facilitating virus reproduction. Cytomegalovirus may spread in body fluids of infected people and can be detected, among others, in urine, saliva, sperm, tears, blood and milk. CMV virus is widely prevalent in the human population – it is estimated that ca. 40% of the population are its vectors.

Among healthy adult people the infection with CMV is asymptomatic or shows small disease symptoms. In the case of adults with immunodeficiency symptoms, cytomegaloviral disease is one of the most important reasons for getting sick. Clinical symptoms can mostly be observed in the following situations:

- after a blood transfusion or an organ transplantation – in the case of some patients, a set of symptoms similar to mononucleosis develops;

- state of immunosuppression – infection with CMV may result in fever, pneumonia, oesophagitis, enteritis, hepatitis, nephritis, retina infection;

- newborn baby infected prenatally – congenital infections relate to ca. 1% of newborns and are connected with immatureness of their immune system; they may result in deafness, mental disorders, vision disorders and newborn developmental defects, or even death.

CMV infection diagnostics

In CMV diagnostics, the best applicable method is Real Time PCR, which is characterized  by short detection time and high sensitivity and uniqueness. The offered test facilitates detecting virus genetic material in blood , cerebrospinal fluid and also in genital system discharges.

333 CMV virus – quality + quantity, Real-Time PCR

 

This test is a modification of the test no. 332 and it focuses on detecting and marking the quantityof DNA copies of CMV virus. This test defines the quantity of virus in blood, which allows  estimating the viremia status and monitoring its changes during treatment.

 

Test material: serum, plasma

Transfer method: temp.2-8°C

Testing method: Real-Time PCR

Delivery date: up to 10 working days

 

341 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) – quality, Real-Time PCR

 

The test detects DNA of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which belongs to the group of herpes-viruses, one of most common viruses. Most people go through infection without any symptoms. In some cases, it may cause infectious mononucleosis. The EBV virus infects salivary glands, in which it reproduces attacking b-lymphocytes. People may suffer from mononucleosis at any age, but it is most frequent among people of 15-30 age. Mononucleosis symptoms can be non-specific and may resemble other infections (streptococcus angina, suppurative meningitis, measles or German measles). Molecular diagnostics of the virus, due to its high sensitivity and specifics, is of particular importance in the case of patients who had organ transplantation, are suffering from oncology diseases or have a reduced immune system due to an HIV infection. The test detects both asymptomatic and early infections with the EBV virus.

 

Test material: serum

Transfer method: temp.2-8°C

Methodology: Real-Time PCR

Delivery date: up to 10 working days

 

Extended description:

What is EBV?

The Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus belongs to the same herpes-viruses family as HSV herpes simplex virus, CMV human cytomegalovirus, chicken pox virus or herpes zoster. All these viruses have the ability to stay in a latent state in the organism for a very long time. Besides, they have the ability to transform from the latent state into an active reproductive state, as a result of inductive factors, i.e. reducing organism immunity and facilitating virus reproduction. During the infection, the EBV virus attacks primarily b-lymphocytes and starts a latent form of an infection. The Epstein-Barr virus may cause infectious mononucleosis. It mainly happens when the first contact with the virus takes place in adolescence period or later. Mononucleosis symptoms may be non-specific and may be similar to other infections (streptococcus angina, suppurative meningitis, measles or German measles). The most characteristic disease symptoms include swollen glands (neck or nape) or a severe sore throat. Mononucleosis may be connected with fever, may cause spleen or liver enlargement. In case of people with a properly operating immune system, complications are rarely observed during EBV infections. The virus may, however, be very dangerous for people in the state of immunosuppression, for organ recipients and people infected with HIV.

The EBV virus also carries oncogenicity potential – it may influence the development of nasopharyngeal cancer or Burkitt's tumor. In recent years, it has been quoted as a possible etiologic agent of chronic weariness and depression syndrome (the so-called chronic Epstein-Barr CEBV disorder).

EBV infection diagnostics

The Real Time PCR method facilitates direct detection of EBV genetic material, is characterized with high sensitivity and uniqueness as well as a fast detection time. This technique allows diagnosing mononucleosis as well as detecting the virus in the early EBV infection, also in the asymptomatic course.

 

342 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) – quality + quantity, Real-Time PCR

 

This test is a modification of the test no. 341 and it focuses on detecting the DNA of the EBV virus (Epstein-Barr). A diagnostic test gives an opportunity for a very sensitive, fast and focused detection of the EBV virus infections. The test defines the number of virus copies in the blood, which allows estimating the viremia status.

 

Test material: serum

Transfer method: temp.2-8°C

Methodology: Real-Time PCR

Delivery date: up to 10 working days

 

725 viral infections panel – detecting viruses: HSV1, HSV2, VZV, CMV, EBV, HHV6 –quality, PCR multiplex

The test  identifies genetic research panel aimed at detecting the genetic material of 6 viruses, i.e.: cytomegalovirus (CMV), oral herpes virus (HSV1), genital herpes virus (HSV2), chicken pox - herpes zoster virus (VZV), type 6 herpes virus (HHV6)and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). They all belong to the herpes-viruses family – Herpesviridae. They cause many benign diseases and  take severe courses, which the most common complication is meningitis.

 

Test material: PMR

Transfer method: 2-8°C

Testing method: multiplex PCR

Delivery date: from 7 working days

 

726 MENINGITIS panel (meningitis) – detects 12 types of pathogens: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus of B group, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes,enteroviruses, HSV1, HSV2, VZV, CMV, EBV, HHV6 - quality, PCR multiplex.

The test covers a panel of genetic research aimed at detecting the genetic material of 12 types of pathogens, which may be the cause of meningitis.

There may be meningitis with bacterial etiology, resulting from infection with: Neisseria meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus of B group, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenesand viral etiology, which may be caused by: HSV1, HSV2, VZV, CMV, EBV, HHV6.

Symptoms accompanying meningitis include: bad overall condition, high fever, headaches, vomiting, stiff neck. Besides, there is often a blood-red rash on the body. Bacterial infection happens more often with children than adults. An infection starts as a result of transferring microbes to cerebrospinal fluid through blood or t skull injury, inflammation of the middle ear or sinusitis. Viral meningitis, in contradiction to the bacterial one, has a much more benign form and generally has no complications.

 

Test material: PMR

Transfer method: temp.2-8°C

Testing method: multiplex PCR

Delivery date: from 7 working days

 

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