Apolipoproteins (Apo) are proteins which form a structure of lipoproteins together with lipids. ApoE is the basic apolipoprotein which can be found in the central nervous system (CNS). It plays an important role in the turnover of lipids and soluble lipid compounds. It takes part in the process of transporting lipids from blood to brain cells and in removing excess lipids from the CNS by way of the cerebrospinal fluid. Besides, it participates in mobilizing and redistributing lipids between the cells in the CNS.
A gene for ApoE is a polymorphic gene and it encodes protein which is composed of z 299 amino acids. Depending on the inbuilt allele (ε2, ε3, ε4), it encodes three iso-forms of ApoE defined as ApoE2, ApoE3 and ApoE4. These forms differ from one another with the location of arginine and cysteine in positions 112 and 158. As a result of this polymorphism, 6 different genotypes originate: three for homozygous forms (2/2, 3/3, 4/4) and three for heterozygous (2/3, 3/4, 2/4). It has been proven that there is a dependence between the held genotype of ApoE and the risk for Alzheimer's disease occurrence, and also the age at which the disease can start. Increased risk has been detected at people who hold allele ε4 (ApoE4).
The risk of falling into Alzheimer's disease grows two-three times bigger in the heterozygous scheme, and fivefold-tenfold in the homozygous scheme, as compared to the entire population. It is believed that as opposed to ApoE4, iso-form E2 has a protective feature and may delay the disease start, while allele ApoE3 does not have any influence on the risk of disease occurrence. Inheriting a specific form of a polymorphic gene for ApoE (E4) is not a self-sufficient factor for disease development, but it is a factor increasing the risk of disease occurrence. The test facilitates identifying the form of APOE gene responsible for genetic predisposition for Alzheimer's disease and other arteriosclerosis diseases.
The disease is known for a difficult-to-notice beginning, but the knowledge on the one's predisposition may substantially facilitate detecting the disease at an early stage and thus arranging a proper sick care as well as early introduction of medicines delaying the disease's progress or mitigating the disorders.
Test material: full blood (EDTA), cheek swab
Transfer method: blood: 4-10°C (a set for blood tests); cheek swab: room temperature (a set for cheek swabs)
Testing method: PCR
Delivery date: up to 14 business days