The test detects DNA of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which belongs to the group of herpes-viruses, one of most common viruses. Most people go through infection without any symptoms. In some cases, it may cause infectious mononucleosis. The EBV virus infects salivary glands, in which it reproduces attacking b-lymphocytes. People may suffer from mononucleosis at any age, but it is most frequent among people of 15-30 age. Mononucleosis symptoms can be non-specific and may resemble other infections (streptococcus angina, suppurative meningitis, measles or German measles).
Molecular diagnostics of the virus, due to its high sensitivity and specifics, is of particular importance in the case of patients who had organ transplantation, are suffering from oncology diseases or have a reduced immune system due to an HIV infection. The test detects both asymptomatic and early infections with the EBV virus.
What is EBV?
The Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus belongs to the same herpes-viruses family as HSV herpes simplex virus, CMV human cytomegalovirus, chicken pox virus or herpes zoster. All these viruses have the ability to stay in a latent state in the organism for a very long time. Besides, they have the ability to transform from the latent state into an active reproductive state, as a result of inductive factors, i.e. reducing organism immunity and facilitating virus reproduction. During the infection, the EBV virus attacks primarily b-lymphocytes and starts a latent form of an infection.
The Epstein-Barr virus may cause infectious mononucleosis. It mainly happens when the first contact with the virus takes place in adolescence period or later. Mononucleosis symptoms may be non-specific and may be similar to other infections (streptococcus angina, suppurative meningitis, measles or German measles). The most characteristic disease symptoms include swollen glands (neck or nape) or a severe sore throat.
Mononucleosis may be connected with fever, may cause spleen or liver enlargement. In case of people with a properly operating immune system, complications are rarely observed during EBV infections. The virus may, however, be very dangerous for people in the state of immunosuppression, for organ recipients and people infected with HIV.
The EBV virus also carries oncogenicity potential – it may influence the development of nasopharyngeal cancer or Burkitt's tumor. In recent years, it has been quoted as a possible etiologic agent of chronic weariness and depression syndrome (the so-called chronic Epstein-Barr CEBV disorder).
EBV infection diagnostics
The Real Time PCR method facilitates direct detection of EBV genetic material, is characterized with high sensitivity and uniqueness as well as a fast detection time. This technique allows diagnosing mononucleosis as well as detecting the virus in the early EBV infection, also in the asymptomatic course.
Test material: serum
Transfer method: temp.2-8°C
Methodology: Real-Time PCR
Delivery date: up to 10 business days